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Guest: Robert (Bob) Zimmerman; Topics: Apollo 8, heavy lift, Moon-Mars, commercial space, and much more. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience. We welcomed Bob back to the show for the last time in 2015. During the first segment of the 2 hour program, Bob started our by remembering Apollo 8's flight around the Moon on Christmas Eve, plus he talked about his new edition Kindle version of his classic book, "Genesis: The Story of Apollo 8." Bob spent some time retelling the full Apollo 8 story, how it came about that Frank Borman and crew decided to read the first twelve chapters of Genesis for the huge broadcast that was heard around the world, then he contrasted the astronaut's freedom to choose their own words to what he expected would prevail today. What do you think? Post your comments about this on the blog. After the Apollo 8 story, we discussed the return to flight by both Orbital ATK and SpaceX. Bob shared his perspectives about this plus his rational for NASA wanting to work with possibly four companies for commercial spaceflight for cargo to the ISS. Caller Richard Easton was next to talk about Apollo 8, then he wanted to know Bob's thoughts on the need to first go to the Moon before going to Mars. This turned into a mini-discussion that included reference to the NASA Roadmap to Mars, the Elon Musk plans to go to Mars and why, along with giant rockets, with Bob commenting on why giant rockets would be inefficient and not necessary. His call consumed the balance of the first segment. In the second segment, I read an email from Doug asking about ISS plans and the possible impact on a Bigelow space station. Jody emailed in a question asking about the space positions for the presidential candidates for both parties. Bob limited his comments to Mrs. Clinton, Mr. Trump, Sen. Rubio, and Senator Cruz. In the process of talking about their positions, he went after big government programs such as SLS and Orion. Jack sent in a question asking about recent XCOR changes in management. Bob had much to say about this, though it was more about the company in general and the industry. He did take the opportunity to applaud Blue Origin. Doug called the show and his call consumed almost all of the balance of the second segment. Bob and Doug had a grand old time planning missions without heavy lift rockets using multiple launches of the F9, ion & solar propulsion. I refrained from entering their discussion and let the two continue until we needed to move on near the end of the show. Bob was again critical of SpaceX wanting to build giant heavy rockets for going to Mars saying FH was large enough and efficient. The assumptions the two made were in my opinion very generous but at least we know where Doug and Bob stand on these issues. If you have comments about their discussion make sure you post your comments on the blog. Please do post all your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Mr. Zimmerman through his website, www.behindtheblack.com. You can reach any caller or emailer through me.