Dr. Piantadosi is Professor of Medicine and Pathology at Duke University School of Medicine. His laboratory has internationally recognized expertise in the molecular regulatory mechanisms of the physiological gases— nitric oxide and carbon monoxide— in health and disease, particularly the impact of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) on the pathogenesis of acute organ failure in critical illness involving the lungs, liver, and heart, with an emphasis on mechanisms of mitochondrial damage, intrinsic apoptosis, and mitochondrial biogenesis. The laboratory utilizes physiology, biochemistry, light and electron microscopy, and cell and molecular biology to provide a comprehensive understanding of the integrated response to acute inflammatory stressors, especially in animal models of severe sepsis and lung injury. The goals are to understand protective and adaptive molecular responses involving energy metabolism by elucidating relevant redox-regulated signaling and transcriptional control mechanisms as well as by designing and testing molecular interventions to prevent or modulate oxidative and nitrosative stress. The contributions of the laboratory have been to improve our understanding and interpretation of the effects of inflammatory stress on cell metabolism and especially mitochondrial biogenesis as they relate to changes in organ structure and function. The comprehensive approach improves the depth of understanding of integrated redox control mechanisms in organ failure and recovery through both native mechanisms and pharmacological manipulation.