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Guest: Dr. Young K. Bae. Topics: Photonic Laser Thrusters(PLT) & the Photonic Railway. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. We welcomed back to the program Dr. Young K. Bae to discuss his award winning research and work with Photonic Laser Thrusters (PLT) and his Photonic Railway concepts. During the first segment of this 90 minute program, Dr. Bae provided us with the background for his interest in PLT and just exactly what it was that he was working on. Do note that PLT would be for in space use, not for launching out of Earth's gravity field. Dr. Bae's discussion is somewhat technical so it might help be following with his website, www.ykbcorp.com and the article about his NIAC award, http://www.nasa.gov/spacetech/niac/2013phaseII_bae.html. He talked about the use of mirrors, ISP, chemical rocket fuel comparisons, and more. In terms of technology readiness levels, its not there yet but it is evolving. Dr. Bae was asked to describe his four-step developmental plan to achieve human interstellar flight using PLTs. Briefly, the four steps are 1) Development of PLTs for satellites and NEO manipulation, 2) Interlunar Photonic Railway (a two-way multi-stage PLT system), 3) Interplanetary Photonic Railway, and 4) Interstellar Photonic Railway. He discussed each step in some detail. We also talked about faster than light travel and time lines required for PLT development. We learned than interstellar PLT travel is maybe a century or more away. Going to the Moon would be about ten years away. Dr. Bae spoke for the need of a commercial return to make the projects viable. Based on this discussion, we talked about the role for government and the private sector in space and technology development. Additional topics in this section included Silicon Valley criteria and mindset, the old Bell Labs, NIAC, and writing scientific papers that do not add to the bottom line. Joe wanted to have a definition of his Photonic Railway so Dr. Bae went into more detail on this concept. In the second segment, Dr. Bae was asked to talk about the new NIAC as opposed to what it was like before when it was shut down. Dr. Bae offered a great before and after comparison. Listner Ben asked about PLT competition and this took us into a discussion on high powered lasers. Pooley called in with questions and comments about the collector and the deceleration process plus the reflectors. Both Charles and Dr. Bae spoke about the earlier work of Dr. Robert Forward. Charles also asked about formation flying. Near the end, Sally asked about Advanced Soft X-ray Technology, then we talked more about fusion, and finally Barbara wanted to know when you know it is time to pull the plug on your research and move on. This was a great discussion, don't miss it. Post your comments/questions on The Space Show blog. You can contact our guest through is website.